PROTECTION OF ARTISTIC
AND SCIENTIFIC INSTITUTIONS
AND HISTORIC MONUMENTS
BETWEEN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
AND THE OTHER AMERICAN REPUBLICS
The High Contracting Parties, animated by the purpose of giving
conventional form to the postulates of the Resolution approved on
December 16, 1933, by all the States represented at the Seventh
International Conference of American States, held at Montevideo, which
recommended to "the Governments of America which have not yet done so
that they sign the 'Roerich Pact', initiated by the Roerich Museum in
the United States, and which has as its object, the universal adoption
of a flag, already designed and generally known, in order thereby to
preserve in any time of danger all nationally and privately owned
immovable monuments which form the cultural treasure of peoples", have
resolved to conclude a treaty with that end in view, and to the effect
that the treasures of culture be respected and protected in time of war
and in peace, have agreed upon the following articles:
The historic monuments, museums, scientific, artistic, educational and
cultural institutions shall be considered as neutral and as such
respected and protected by belligerents. The same respect and protection
shall be due to the personnel of the institutions mentioned above. The
same respect and protection shall be accorded to the historic monuments,
museums, scientific, artistic, educational and cultural institutions in
time of peace as well as in war.
The neutrality of, and protection and respect due to, the monuments and
institutions mentioned in the preceding article, shall be recognized in
the entire expanse of territories subject to the sovereignty of each of
the signatory and acceding States, without any discrimination as to the
State allegiance of said monuments and institutions. The respective
Governments agree to adopt the measures of internal legislation
necessary to insure said protection and respect.
In order to identify the monuments and institutions mentioned in article
I, use may be made of a distinctive flag (red circle with a triple red
sphere in the circle on a white background) in accordance with the model
attached to this treaty.
The signatory Governments and those which accede to this treaty, shall
send to the Pan American Union, at the time of signature or accession,
or at any time thereafter, a list of the monuments and institutions for
which they desire the protection agreed to in this treaty. The Pan
American Union, when notifying the Governments of signatures or
accessions, shall also send the list of monuments and institutions
mentioned in this article, and shall inform the other Governments of any
changes in said list.
The monuments and institutions mentioned in article I shall cease to
enjoy the privileges recognized in the present treaty in case they are
made use of for military purposes.
The States which do not sign the present treaty on the date it is opened
for signature, may sign or adhere to it at any time.
The instruments of accession, as well as those of ratification and
denunciation of the present treaty, shall be deposited with the Pan
American Union, which shall communicate notice of the act of deposit to
the other signatory or acceding States.
The present treaty may be denounced at any time by any of the signatory
or acceding States, and the denunciation shall go into effect three
months after notice of it has been given to the other signatory or
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the Undersigned Plenipotentiaries, after having
deposited their full powers found to be in due and proper form, sign
this treaty on behalf of their respective governments, and affix thereto
their seals, on the dates appearing opposite their signatures.
April 15, 1935.